Light pollution a reason for insect decline
Climate change, pesticides and land use changes alone cannot fully explain the decline in insect populations in Germany. Scientists from the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) have now discovered that regions that have experienced a sharp decline in flying insects also have high levels of light pollution. Many studies already suggest that artificial light at night has negative impacts on insects, and scientists should pay greater attention to this factor when exploring the causes of insect population declines in the future.
The biomass of flying insects has decreased by more than 75 per cent – this alarming figure made front page news in autumn 2017. The study*, published in 2017, analysed trends in biomass of flying insects in selected protected areas within agricultural landscapes over the last 27 years, and concluded that changes of climate and habitat are to blame for the decline in insect populations. At the same time, they pointed out that these impacts alone are unable to explain this drastic decline.
Light at the wrong time disturbs the balance of ecosystems
Clearly an assignment for scientists from the Light Pollution and Ecophysiology research group at IGB. After all, they know from previous studies that artificial lighting at night strongly affects the number of insects and insect communities. Therefore, the team led by IGB researcher Dr. Maja Grubisic looked at the locations of the areas involved in the 2017 study: areas in conurbations that have a higher than average level of light pollution. “Half of all insect species are nocturnal. As such, they depend on darkness and natural light from the moon and stars for orientation and movement or to escape from predators, and to go about their nightly tasks of seeking food and reproducing. An artificially lit night disturbs this natural behaviour – and has a negative impact on their chances of survival”, explains Maja Grubisic the starting point of their investigation.
Artificial lighting at night could be a reason for declining insect populations
The scientists analysed all recent studies on the effects of artificial light at night on insects, and found that there is strong evidence to suggest a credible link between light pollution and declines in insect populations. For example, flying insects are attracted by artificial lights – and, at the same time, are removed from other ecosystems – and die from exhaustion or as easy prey. Additionally, rows of light prevent flying insects from spreading; causing a lack of genetic exchange within fragmented insect populations that could reduce their resistance to other negative environmental influences, which are especially pronounced in agrarian areas.
A decline in insect populations in agricultural areas – which make up no less than eleven per cent of land use worldwide – does not only mean a decline in species diversity, but also jeopardises important ecosystem services: for example, there are then fewer moths, beetles and flies to pollinate plants. Also, changes in the occurrence and behaviour of pests such as aphids or their enemies such as beetles and spiders can disturb the balance of this well-tuned system. Furthermore, artificial light at night may also have a direct impact on the growth and flowering time of plants, and therefore on yield.
All influencing factors have to be understood and considered – including light pollution
“Our overview study shows that artificial light at night is widely present and can have complex impacts in agricultural areas, with unknown consequences for biodiversity and crop production. Thus, light pollution should be generally considered as a potential ecosystem disturbance in future studies to identify ways in which practical steps can be taken to reduce environmental concerns“, summarises Dr. Franz Hölker, Head of the Light Pollution and Ecophysiology research group at IGB.
Read the study in Annals of Applied Biology > https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12440
Grubisic, M., van Grunsven, R.H.A., Kyba, C.C.M., Manfrin, A. and Hölker, F. (2018) Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Ann Appl Biol. doi:10.1111/aab.12440
*Link to the study „More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total flying insect biomass in protected areas“: http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0185809
Dr. Maja Grubisic, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Department 1 Ecohydrology, +49 (0)30 64181 784, firstname.lastname@example.org (Interviews in English, Serbian and Croatian)
PD Dr. Franz Hölker, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Department 1 Ecohydrology, +49 (0)30 64181 665, email@example.com (Interviews in German and English)
Katharina Bunk, Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Public Relations, +49 (0)30 641 81 631, +49 (0)170 45 49 034, firstname.lastname@example.org
About the Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB):
Work at IGB combines basic research with preventive research as a basis for the sustainable management of freshwaters. In the process, IGB explores the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems under near-natural conditions and under the effect of multiple stressors. Its key research activities include the long-term development of lakes, rivers and wetlands under rapidly changing global, regional and local environmental conditions, the development of coupled ecological and socio-economic models, the renaturation of ecosystems, and the biodiversity of aquatic habitats. Work is conducted in close cooperation with universities and research institutions from the Berlin-Brandenburg region as well as worldwide. IGB is a member of the Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V., an association of eight research institutes of natural sciences, life sciences and environmental sciences in Berlin. The institutes are members of the Leibniz Association. http://www.igb-berlin.de/en